Responsible travel is a new way of travelling and trekking for those who've had enough of mass tourism. It's about respecting and benefiting local people and the environment – but it's about far more than that.
Some Guidelines for Responsible Travel / trekking
1. Cultural Issues
Respecting cultural differences
Assisting the locals in their understanding of Western culture
Swimming & sunbathing
Etiquette – the all important 'Saving Face'
Photography – still & video
Drugs & alcohol
2. Social Issues
Relationships with people in visited communities
Donations & gift giving
Shopping & dining
Supporting local communities
3. The Environment
Environmental responsibility & waste minimisation
Energy & water conservation
1. Cultural Issues Respecting Cultural Differences Experiencing cultural diversity is one of the main reasons why we travel to far flung places and we need to make sure that these differences are respected and maintained. Things are done differently in south Asia, which is one of the reasons why it is so appealing! In general, it is essential that we respect the cultural rules in the areas that we are travelling in ( Nepal, Tibet, Bhutan and India). Please accept the differences in these areas and do not try to change them for the benefit of your own comfort. The traveller who wishes to have a happy and successful trip should keep as calm, cheerful and friendly as humanly possible. Patience and courtesy are virtues that open many doors. Demanding tourists do not get smiles, service or respect.
Assisting the Locals in their Understanding of Western Culture The flip side of gaining cultural understanding when travelling is helping the locals to gain a greater insight into Western culture, and beyond the superficial attractions of money and wealth. Recognise that as a Westerner in many parts of south Asia you are probably richer than the locals you are meeting and you are a world traveller - something most of the locals you meet can only dream of. When dealing with locals respect that they may wish to develop economically and have access to material possessions that you take for granted. While this undoubtedly changes villages and makes it less "unspoilt" for tourists, it is something that we should respect and understand. Everyone has a right to development and a better standard of living. A role you can play is to help assist local people to gain a balanced view of development by sharing not only the advantages of your culture but also some of the negative influences that come from increased material wealth, on both the family and the community.
Dress Standards Asian people in general, dress modestly and as a rule Earthbound Expeditions trip participants should dress as the locals do. Dress standards vary from place to place, with rural areas tending to be more conservative than the cities. In major cities, such as Kathmandu, Pokhara, Delhimini skirts and such like are becoming popular with the younger generation. You will find that the older generation frown upon this and are more conservative in their dress. For women, singlet tops, not wearing a bra and tight body hugging attire can be offensive, as well as attracting unwanted male attention!
Modest clothing goes a long way towards making a good impression with the local people. You will find them far more willing to approach you if you dress as they do. Long pants/skirts and sleeved shirts are seen as appropriate. This is not to say you cannot wear shorts, but there will be situations where they are inappropriate, especially for females. Shorts should never be too short and lycra is best left for the gym.
More formal dress codes apply for temples, monastries, mosques or any other religious sites you may visit, and to prevent the wrath of the gods as well as the locals these should be closely followed. In general, both men and women should have covered shoulders and legs, plus shoes and hats should be removed in those religious sites.
Swimming & Sunbathing There are no areas of south Asia where nude sunbathing or swimming is acceptable, despite what other travellers might be doing. In some places Asian women will swim/bathe wearing all their clothes. If this is the case, then a good rule of thumb is to swim/bathe in a sarong or T-shirt where necessary.
Etiquette – the all important 'Saving Face' There are a few general codes of behaviour that apply throughout the areas in which we operate.
Crooking your finger to call somebody is considered impolite. Asian people generally use a subtle downward waving motion to summon someone.
Showing affection in public is considered quite offensive - definitely no kissing! Away from the major urban centres it is extremely rare to see couples holding hands, though it is quite common to see friends of the same sex holding hands.
It is polite to remove your shoes before entering a house. Look for shoes at the front door as a clue and follow suit.
Criticism should only be used when put among praise.
It is inappropriate to express anger in a raised voice. Becoming angry is embarrassing to the local people with whom you are dealing - they will not be embarrassed for themselves, but for you. "Saving face" is a subtle but important standard of personal dignity. Personal candour in Asia is largely a matter of sensibility and face.
Answering questions! The ideal demeanour for the Asian traveller is friendly and open and ever ready to answer questions like where you are going? Are you married? How old are you? how many childrens you have? You will likely be asked questions like these that in a Western society may be considered personal. While you might find such a barrage of questions disconcerting, remain patient and remember to recognise that people are just being friendly and curious. Asian people often ask what your religion is. They have a general concern that everyone has a religion, though it doesn't particularly matter which one. If you reply that you do not have a religion, you might find a look of horror on the faces of your local hosts! The same attitude extends to the area of marriage and children. If someone asks you if you are married or have children, and you are not/do not, a good response is "not yet". If you are feeling uncomfortable with such questions, try to be patient or subtly change the subject!
Bear in mind also that attitudes toward privacy differ greatly between the West and Asia. Asian people often have an interest in our books, writing or photographs, things that the Westerner considers to be 'private property.' Concepts of property, private ownership and privacy are very different for the rural Asian, who is accustomed to living and sharing in a close-knit community. Be prepared and understand that your local hosts are not being 'nosey' but politely interested.
Photography – Still & Video Sensitivity is the key when it comes to photography. Always ask permission before taking photographs of people and respect their wishes if they refuse. Minority groups in particular are often unhappy to have their photo taken. They may think they do not look attractive (wearing their work clothes rather than festival clothes), while other groups believe that part of their spirit is taken away if they are photographed ( rural areas). There are occasions when you will meet a lot of porters carrying anything from bottles of beer to beds. Please respect that this is their job and that they may not like having their photo taken in these circumstances. Travellers should avoid paying for the right to take a photo as this has been found to encourage a begging mentality in the locals. Instead you can send back copies via your tour leader / guide or directly to the people themselves. The locals gain a great buzz from seeing themselves in photos and it encourages a 'sharing' rather than 'taking' attitude towards photography. Also in many cases the locals could never afford to take photos themselves.
While you are welcome to pack your video cameras, there are some places that we request you not to film. In some small villages, homestays and remote communities, the local people consider filming to be too intrusive and recording aspects of their private lives. In these communities we also request the utmost courtesy and discretion with still cameras. Your tour leader / guide will advise you in this regard.
Prescription Medicines Avoid giving Western medicines to our Asian hosts. They may not understand the medicine and the concept, say of taking tablets 3 times per day, may not be understood. Unpredicted side-effects could also be a problem. In addition, we don't want dependence on medicines to occur especially when natural and traditional treatments may be just as effective. If a local person approaches you for treatment, encourage them to seek traditional cures or assist them to the local clinic/hospital. If you are a medic, it may be better not to reveal your profession too readily, as you might find yourself with a queue of patients and be left in a dilemma.
Of course there are exceptions to this rule in the case of emergencies. If a local is seriously injured and in a potentially life threatening situation then they should be given the appropriate first aid treatment which may include medication. However, remain aware of the potential dangers of reactions to drugs and try to get them to medical help as soon as possible.
2. Social Issues Relationships with People in Visited Communities Be aware that it is taboo in some of the communities we visit to conduct an intimate relationship with a local person. If you find yourself in a situation where a relationship with a local could develop, seek the advice of your group leader / guide who will find out, with the assistance of other locals, the correct courting process! Failure to do so could lead to compromising the credibility of future Earthbound Expeditions trips, not to mention the heavy fines levied in some communities, while in others it can be punishable by serious injury. Be aware too that the well-being, social standing and reputation of the recipient of a foreigner's attention can be seriously affected within their local communities. Homosexual relationships have gained much wider acceptance in Western communities in recent years. Be aware, however, that this is not the case in some parts of Asia and if a local is found to be engaging in a homosexual relationship they could be totally outcast or shunned by their families and community or worse.
Prostitution The prevalence of prostitution is an unfortunate element of Asia today and it is an aspect that Earthbound Expeditions want to have no part of in running our trips. The philosophy of Earthbound is one of mutual respect towards everyone we deal with and in particular the local people who make the region as special as it is. The use of prostitutes is completely contrary to this philosophy and we are strongly opposed to any of our travellers visiting prostitutes while in Asia.
While there is a risk of contracting HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, there are other wider social implications. Unlike prostitutes in some developed countries, many Asian women are not prostitutes of their own free will but are in fact bonded labour. They may have been lured into employment in the city and end up imprisoned in brothels. Many face condemnation and being ostracised by their communities and may not be able to return, while many more end up with drug problems and become infected with HIV or other STDs. On this basis we strongly condemn any person who supports prostitution in Asia. It is not an acceptable excuse to say that it is 'part of the culture'.
Child prostitution or sex tourism is an abhorrent and illegal act that we strongly condemn. Any incidences of this will be reported to the local and international authorities, who have links with Interpol and will ensure that the person involved will be questioned - and if appropriate - charged.
Donations & Gift Giving This is a difficult issue for many travellers who want to assist the local communities but are unaware of the larger implications. There are many ways in which you can have a positive input into the communities that you visit:
Appropriate Donations Earthbound Expeditions supports a number of local projects and charities. Visit the Responsible Travel section of our website or ask your tour leader / guide about making a donation. We collect clothing, first aid items, stationery and children's books and ensure that they go directly the requested charity or project.
Beggars Do not give to begging children / adults as it reinforces that begging is an acceptable way to make a living for these children. It is best to follow the guidelines set by local people in how they treat beggars in their community e.g. in many places it is considered acceptable to give to the elderly and disabled as there is no social security or other way these people can earn money. Buddhists and Hindus believe giving to beggars will earn them 'merit'. Your tour leader can advise you further on this.
Ways not to give! Giving money and goods away at random to individuals accentuates an unequal relationship between locals and visitors, with tourists being seen as purely 'money givers'. It also strips self esteem away from people when they get money for simply being poor rather than having to solve their own issues of poverty through community action. We also need to be careful not to pay for acts of kindness in monetary terms (eg. paying kids for photographs). We do not want to encourage the development of a society that equates every human action as a potential money making scheme.
Do not give sweets to children in the villages that we visit. Local people do not have access to dentists, nor can they afford them and again there is the issue of turning children into beggars. Pens, toothbrushes, clothing or other perhaps 'worthwhile' items are best distributed via a local charity, school teacher or community leader.
Avoid feeling that you necessarily have to give 'material' things. The best giving can sometimes be shared interactions like a smile, joke, sing-song, dance or playing a game. Giving something of your friendship, time and interest to interact with locals can be the best gift of all.
Shopping & Dining Please refuse to buy any souvenirs, food or products made from local wildlife - this includes snake-wine, bear, bats,Tigers,monkey, frogs, turtles and sea horses. Though a local delicacy, both bears and frogs, for example, are highly endangered and we should not encourage their demise. Where possible avoid restaurants that make a feature of wild endangered animal species on their menus. If you see an abuse of animals or wildlife, report this to the concerned places. Alternatively, advise your tour guide who will refer it to an appropriate organisation who can best handle it e.g. WSPA – the World Society for the Protection of Animals, TRAFFIC - the wildlife trade monitoring program of the World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF) and the World Conservation Union (IUCN).
Supporting Local Communities While there are human rights abuses all over Asia some places are far worse than others. Do what you can to not support the oppressors or perpetrators of the abuses. Learn as much as you can about what is happening in the country you will be visiting. Buffalo plans its activities so as not to financially support regimes that inflict violence on the general population. Occasionally though, there may be instances where our activities are supporting a regime. In that case you should weigh up the advantages to the people over the disadvantages of supporting the regime.
Earthbound Expeditions support Amnesty International for their work to prevent serious human rights violations. Amnesty International campaigns to free prisoners of conscience, achieve fair trials and lobby governments to change unfair laws and unjust attitudes. They have helped to increase public awareness of political imprisonment, torture and the death penalty throughout the world and have helped improve mechanisms for human rights protection. Have a look at their country reports for the human rights situation in the country you will visit. Be very discreet if you print these out and carry them in-country!
Earthbpound Expeditions is very actively involved in supporting local communities, with a range of initiatives and touring options you can become involved with. Projects that you can visit or volunteer with Medical Treks, volunteer in the village, orphange house stay and the Project with Disabled Children.
3. The Environment Environmental Responsibility & Waste Minimisation In south Asia, the enormous economic growth of the region has been at the cost of the environment. Analysts are only now beginning to recognise the extent of the damage and the true cost to the environment and the welfare of its inhabitants.( Melting ICe in the Himalayas too!!) Debris-choked waterways, open sewers, excessive air pollution and plastic littering the streets are an obvious result of unrestrained economic growth. We don't want our presence in Asia to add to this problem and need to minimise our impact on the places by practising waste minimisation initiatives whilst on holiday. We can also assist our Asian hosts in making informed decisions in developing social and environmental programs that will benefit future generations.
We are looking to adopt preventative actions on our trips by adopting practises that are commonly recognised as the three R's: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.
Rubbish Try not to use plastic covered or wrapped foods when fresh options are available. The disposal of plastic and styrofoam is a major problem in south Asia, and the more we can do to reduce its use the better. Buy in local markets where little packaging is used, the food is fresh and the money is benefiting the local producers. Take your own bags with you when shopping - "say no to plastic".
Whenever we are away from towns or cities we must not leave any rubbish we take in with us. Tampons and sanitary pads should be taken out of the area and disposed of appropriately. Pick up any rubbish that you see left behind by other travellers, so that we leave a place cleaner than we found it.
Organic waste such as food scraps should not be dispersed or buried in national parks and other protected areas. This practise may introduce exotic seeds and is not the natural diet of the native animals. Take it out with you again. You guide will advise you in this regard.
Drinking Water Bottled water is for sale in much of Asia and also in trekking, but unfortunately there are few facilities for recycling the bottles. Actively try to reduce the 'consumption' of plastic bottles by using alternatives. Your options are:
in hotels ask if you can refill your bottle with purified water for free or for a small fee
In Trek bring your own water filter, water purification tablets or iodine to purify drinking water. 2% tincture of iodine is used at 4 drops/litre of water and leave for at least 30 minutes, 1 hour if very cold water. Povidine-iodine solution can be used in the same proportion and left for 1 hour.
Toilet Facilities When trekking or in remote areas use the toilet facilities that are provided. If none are established, find out a suitable place which is at least 50m away from water sources and people's homes. Bury faecal matter, carry toilet paper in a plastic bag for appropriate disposal later, or burn it. On all regular trekking routes most homestays will have an established set toilet for the group.
Energy & Water Conservation Be prudent with fuel and water. Pollution, greenhouse gases and other problems of fossil fuel use are escalating as developing countries strive towards having modern Western appliances, vehicles and production methods. Clean water supplies are diminishing. Some ways to cut energy consumption:
Air-con in hotel rooms: don't use unnecessarily or leave on when out of the room. Turn down to 'fan only' or off overnight. This is better for avoiding sore throats and colds too!
Air-con vehicles: short journeys are easily managed with windows open
A cold shower may be more refreshing than hot in the tropics. Avoid hot showers where the water is being heated with cut timber or other non-sustainable methods
An empty room does not need light. Many newer hotels have the key tag socket systems that prevent this
Walk, cycle or use human powered rickshaws for sight seeing. Avoid taxis when there is a fuel free or shared transport option like a public bus
Environmental Degradation On treks, use existing tracks and stay on them. This is especially important during the wet season because it is all too easy to create new tracks in order to get a better footing. If people don't adhere to this, the trail soon becomes a series of footpaths that turns into erosion gullies. This impacts on the vegetation as branches are reached for as handholds, broken off, and added to the topsoil that has been dislodged to silt up the waterways.
Snorkelling – remember that touching coral formations can hinder their growth. Coral cuts can easily become nasty infections too. Do not take any coral or shells, as even though they may be dead, it encourages locals to think that they are desirable souvenirs and that there's a market in these items. Stick with the "Take only photos, leave only footprints" adage but add sensitivity into the equation!
Limestone caves – do not touch formations, as natural body oils from the fingers hinder the formations' growth and will discolour the limestone.
Fires – reduce deforestation by avoiding unnecessary use of scarce firewood. Fuel stoves should be used for cooking on camping trips and we do our best to choose accommodation that uses kerosene, gas or fuel-efficient firewood stoves. Put on warmer clothes rather than stoking a wood fire for warmth. Avoid lighting fires on those beautiful white sand beaches - the charcoal works its way through the sand, which in time ends up not so beautiful. Bonfires are not to be encouraged.
Soap – On treks when you need to bathe in streams or lakes try to forget about soap for a few days and harmonise with nature! A soapless bathe will still remove sweat! A nail brush and flannel may help! Conventional body soap and shampoo are degradable but it takes time for them to break down and in the interim they may be contaminating water quality for people downstream. The bigger problem is actually products like washing powders which contain cleaning agents that will damage the soil and vegetation if not disposed of in a controlled manner. While it might seem difficult using no soap when the locals have their big bags of Omo on the riverbank, it is important that we don't add to the problem, as we are visitors and are an additional 'load' on the eco-system.
Wildlife When visiting national parks or reserves where you will be in contact with wildlife, please ensure that you follow the appropriate park regulations that ensure that wildlife is protected. Respect this even if you observe that other tourists don't. Don't respond to local rangers offering to bend the rules for tourists. Sometimes local people will try and sell protected species to foreigners. While you wish to do this so that you can set the animal free, this actually can be a money making scam for locals and it is a better policy to refuse to pay money and encourage the local to release the animal. When they realise there is no demand for the animal then the practise may eventually stop.
Feedback In your feedback form at the end of your trip we request that you tell us how we performed with regard to Responsible Travel issues. It's very important to us and bringing it to prominence in your mind is also a priority for us. Alternatively